Formatting of references follows the Harvard system. References should be indicated in the text by surname of the author(s) followed by the year of publication as shown below.
References to more than one publication by an author in the same year should be distinguished with lower-case letters, e.g. (Smith 2003a, 2003b). The abbreviated author and date reference should be placed in parentheses unless the name forms part of the text, e.g. “Jones (2005) has established that….” If no person is named as author, the name of the appropriate body should be used, e.g. (Ecological Society of America 2006).
Unpublished studies and personal communications should be referred to in the text only, using the authors’ initials and surname.
The references should be relevant to the study and should refer to the original research sources. Self-citation and self-interest should be avoided by the authors, editors and peer-reviewers.
All authors’ names should be listed in the references. The full list of references including names of all authors should be typed in alphabetical order and double-spaced at the end of the article, in accord with the following examples. Journal titles should be in full, not abbreviated. Below are a few examples of references listed in the Harvard style.
-  Rolán-Alvarez, E, Carballo, M, Galindo, J, Morán, P, Fernández, B, Caballero, A, Cruz, R, Boulding, EG & Johannesson, K (2004) Nonallopatric and parallel origin of local reproductive barriers between two snail ecotypes. Molecular Ecology, 13, 3415-24.
-  Wellborn, GA & Broughton, RE (2008) Diversification on an ecologically constrained adaptive landscape. Molecular Ecology, 17, 2927-36.
-  Sambrook, J, Fritsch, EF & Maniatis, T (1989) Molecular Cloning a Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York.
-  Stevenson, WG, Friedman, PL (1999) In: Hennekens, CH (Ed) Clinical Trials in Cardiovascular Disease, Philadelphia, WB Saunders Co 217-30.
-  Citations for articles/material published exclusively online or in open access (free-to-view) , must contain the exact Web addresses (URLs) at the end of the reference(s), except those posted on an author’s Web site unless editorially essential, e.g. ‘Reference: Available from: URL’.
Some important points to remember:
- All references must be complete and accurate.
- If the number of authors exceeds six then et al will be used after three names (the term “et al.” should be in italics).
- Online citations should include the date of access.
- Journal abbreviations should follow the Index Medicus/MEDLINE.
- Take special care of the punctuation convention as described in the above-mentioned examples.
- Avoid using superscript in the in-text citations and reference section.
- Abstracts, unpublished data and personal communications (which can only be included if prior permission has been obtained) should not be given in the reference section but they may be mentioned in the text and details provided as footnotes.
- The authors are encouraged to use a recent version of EndNote (version 5 and above) or Reference Manager (version 10) when formatting their reference list, as this allows references to be automatically extracted.